History of Animation

Posts Tagged ‘cartoons

Mel Brooks probably put it best when talking about trying to find comedy and humor in horrifying events and people, such as the infamous dictators who reigned during World War II: “Rhetoric does not get you anywhere, because Hitler and Mussolini are just as good as rhetoric. But if you can bring these people down with comedy, they stand no chance.”

This was definitely present in the Wartime Cartoons that animation studios such as Disney and Warner Bros. made; very heavy on pro-American/ USA and heavy on anti- Axis Powers, these cartoons heavily relied on bombastic parodies of the infamous dictators that occupied the areas of Europe and Asia, as well as stereotypes of the various ranks of Nazi soldiers. Though the Japanese had their fair share of being stereotyped and mocked by these cartoons, a lot of the Wartime Cartoons focused on the Nazis, mostly because of their heavy, widespread invasion and ever-growing fear. Characters such as Daffy Duck, Superman, Donald Duck, and Popeye all got opportunities to fight the Nazi menace in their own way, much to the enjoyment of people staying at the home-front in America who were worried about how their husbands or oldest sons were fighting overseas, and the constant threat of Axis or Nazi expansion throughout the world. Nowadays, these kinds of Anti-Nazi Wartime Cartoons are usually parodied or have become homages in more recent cartoons; one the best example of this would be the South Park episode where Cartman defeats infamous terrorist leader Osama bin Laden in a manner quite similar to the Daffy Duck cartoons described here.

Warner Bros. used Daffy Duck quite a few times for fighting Nazis; two of the best examples of these would be the cartoons “Daffy The Commando” and “Scrap Happy Daffy“. In the 1943 cartoon “Daffy The Commando“, Daffy Duck goes behind enemy lines to infiltrate a Nazi camp headed by Von Vulture, an obvious stereotype of German commander as he has the evil monocle, is incredibly short-tempered, and even has a bumbling soldier named Schultz (interestingly enough, if anyone has watched the show Hogan’s Heroes, Colonel Klink and Sgt. Schultz could be considered homages to these two). Most of the cartoon involves a series of comedic mishaps with Daffy foiling Von Vulture, but it’s the ending that makes this cartoon extremely memorable. Daffy Duck is fired out of a cannon and lands right in Berlin where Hitler is making a speech; as Hitler is just rambling on in a nonsensical mix of English and German (with a stereotypical German accent), Daffy whacks him with a cartoon mallet, causing Hitler to cry like a baby. What makes this scene so iconic and funny is the entire setup and the way that Hitler is portrayed; the background music is a goofy, organ-grinder mix of “The More We Get Together“, Mel Blanc as Hitler rambling incoherently and bombastically about random things (“MEIN POOMPKIN! MEIN MILK! MEIN HEIMLICH!” just to name a few), and the whole mallet scene, which makes Hitler act like a temper-tantrum throwing kid is all perfectly-timed hilarity (weirdly enough, as I recently watched this cartoon, I got heavily reminded of how one first sees Hitler in Inglorious Basterds).

Scrap-Happy Daffy“, another 1943 Pro-America/ Anti-Nazi cartoon with Daffy Duck against the Nazi menace, and was also interestingly the last cartoon to feature Daffy Duck in black and white. It features Daffy Duck guarding a gigantic scrap yard, as it’s part of his job as an American citizen (during WWII times, every piece of metal and steel wav very crucial; there were many posters that encouraged American citizens to do specific things to cut down on costs and such). Unfortunately, Hitler isn’t pleased about Mussolini’s downfall due to Daffy’s huge scrap pile, and so, sends his troops to launch one of their most powerful weapons to destroy the scrap pile- a billy goat. What makes “Scrap-Happy Daffy” notable is that it’s a textbook example of American Pride at it’s finest; Daffy Duck even sings a song in the beginning of the cartoon about how the citizens of America can be like him and help the Allied forces win the war by saving specific items (with also a very adult joke thrown in of him pointing to a drawing of a pin-up girl). There’s also a very clever visual gag of how Hitler gets introduced in this cartoon, namely cross-fading from a horse’s backside to Hitler sitting at his desk reading the paper.

The final cartoon that I watched, the 1943 cartoon “The Ducktators” directed by Norman McCabe, is another cartoon encouraging US citizens to buy US savings bonds and stamps, but it’s significant in the fact that it not only makes fun of Hitler, but also Mussolini and Hirohito as well. It begins on a farm with a husband and wife duck expecting their egg (which is curiously black instead of white) to hatch. The egg hatches revealing a duckling with Hitler’s mustache yelling “Seig Hiel!”, indicating, obviously, that he’s Hitler. As the Hitler-Duck grows older, he attracts a goose who bears a resemblance to Benito Mussolini and a duck who is a complete parody of Hirohito, with large stereotypical front teeth and round glasses. The only animal on the barn that tries to stand up to them is one single white dove, but when his peace treaties and requests fail, the dove takes matters into his own hands. This story almost has a Dr. Seuss-like feel to it, as a narrator tells the story in an almost storybook-like tone. Weirdly enough, the ending which features the dove telling his kids how his enemies were defeated (and are shown like animal heads above his fireplace) and the “Buy War Bonds” noticed has been censored since the 1950s (though the whole ending can be found on the sixth volume of the Looney Tunes Golden Collection).

I understand that Disney had their fair share of making fun of the Axis Powers, but Warner Bros. was much more bombastic in the way that they made fun of Hitler and the Nazis; whereas Disney portrayed them as bumbling fools, Warner Bros.’s type of satire seemed to almost be akin to how Mel Brooks portrayed them in The Producers‘ “Springtime for Hitler” segment. …I guess we just sort of came full circle, didn’t we?

Sources:

TvTropes- Wartime Cartoons

TvTropes- Those Wacky Nazis

I responded to Danyael Hughes and Andrew Steward

I’ll start this out on a personal note: as I’ve gotten older, I’ve found that legendary cartoon artist and animator Chuck Jones has become a huge inspiration for me. For some reason, everything about his style is instantly appealing; the way his characters are gestured and move, the facial expressions, and most importantly, the comedic timing. He worked on some of the most famous Looney Tunes shorts, such as What’s Opera, Doc?, One Froggy Evening, the Hunting Trilogy (which I will discuss for another time), and, the cartoon that I will be talking about today, Duck Amuck, which is probably one of the most iconic cartoons ever in animation.

Duck Amuck was directed by Chuck Jones, and was released in early 1953 as part of the Merrie Melodies series. Since its debut, it’s been voted #2 of the 50 Greatest Cartoons of all time by members in the field of animation, deemed “culturally significant” by the US Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry in 1999, and even had a Nintendo DS game based on it.

Daffy Duck, trying in vain to stop the typical cartoon ending fade-out.

The premise is simple: it seemingly begins with Daffy Duck starring in an Errol Flynn-esque Three Muskateers cartoon, only to find out that the background just fades out into a blank white background. From there on out, it’s a comedic, desperate struggle for Daffy Duck, as he’s constantly tormented by the main antagonist of the short, an unseen animator. The unseen animator constantly changes the location, art style, objects, perspective, and even Daffy himself by making him mute, then giving him inappropriate sound effects as a voice; and messing up his color scheme only to draw him as some sort of mutant alien creature (which has been parodied in other cartoons, such as The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy, and Bart’s nightmare in The Simpsons’ Halloween special: Treehouse of Horror II).

The iconic creature that the unseen animator turns Daffy into. Naturally, he doesn't take this too well.

Why does Duck Amuck have this timeless feel to it? Why do none of the jokes never get old? It mostly has to do with Chuck Jones taking the concept of “breaking the 4th wall” and just having so much surreal experimentation and fun with it. The way that Daffy Duck responds to everything that the unseen animator does produces hilarious reactions and results. Chuck Jones even said that he was just having good-natured fun, showing the audience what boundaries he could push and transform Daffy into, yet at the same time, Daffy still retains his pompous, hot-headed personality regardless how much his appearance, voice or interactive environment changes. The ending with the cartoon, where it reveals that the unseen animator is actually Daffy’s buddy/ friendly rival, Bugs Bunny (who says one of his famous catchphrases, “Ain’t I a stinker?”) just adds to all of the weird hilarity that happens.

Two years later, Jones made a cartoon entitled Rabbit Rampage, which was a spiritual successor to Duck Amuck, as it featured Bugs Bunny this time as the victim of the unseen animator’s expense (who in the end turns out to be Elmer Fudd in one of the few cartoons where he actually outsmarts/ outwits Bugs Bunny). While still an interesting cartoon in its own right, it still doesn’t hold a candle to the original, and the best.

Bugs Bunny seems to have met his match, as the unseen animator relentlessly draws a barrage of hats and wigs.

Sources:

Wikipedia Article

This week, I commented on Brittany Alberry and Amanda Martin

What can honestly be said about Don Bluth, a former animator for Disney as well as the creator of a few animated films himself? During the 1980’s after his departure from Disney’s animation studio, Bluth went on to make movies such as An American Tale, The Land Before Time, and what many consider to be his masterpiece, The Secret of NIMH, and actually prospered during a time whereas Disney was in both a financial and creative slump. His movies differed greatly from the usual standard Disney, mainly because he didn’t stick to copying from the Disney Formula when he first started out. Compared to a typical Disney plot where the main character had light-hearted fun,then a conflict came, but the character resolves it and lives happily ever after, Bluth’s plot and story-lines were a lot more mature-themed as well as having a very dark and threatening atmosphere or environment threatening the protagonist. Despite the protagonist reaching a happy ending at the end of the films, they arguably go through a great deal of pain and sacrifice, but become a smarter person as well.

However, during the early 90’s, Disney was back in full swing of making animated box office hits during what many people call the “Disney Renaissance”, and Bluth fell on hard times when it came to finances, movie development, and quality. This became apparent when his newest animated movie at the time, Rock-A-Doodle, was released in theaters on April 3 1992, as it signaled that not only was Bluth dethroned from his position in the 1980’s, but also that he would continue this downward spiral throughout the 90’s (despite having good success with the 1997 release of Anastasia, only to plummet back down in 2000 with the commercial failure of the now cult hit, Titan A.E.).

The whole idea behind Rock-A-Doodle and its origins dates back to when Bluth was still working at Disney’s animation studio. Originally, the idea was to create an animated movie that would crossover the fables of Chanticleer the Rooster and Reynard the Fox. However, Walt Disney personally rejected the idea, and the concept was put into limbo. According to Wikipedia, in the late 1980’s, Bluth proposed the the idea of the animated Chanticleer movie, but wanted make the movie a live action/ animation hybrid in an attempt to capitalize on the success of Who Framed Roger Rabbit?. Sadly, Rock-A-Doodle was not well-recieved by either critics or audiences, making only roughly $11.6 million dollars and leading to the bankruptcy of Sullivan Bluth Studios.

To a 6 year old, however, Rock-A-Doodle was one of those animated movies that your mother picked up at Blockbuster to keep you entertained during a snow day; you’d watch it maybe 3 or 4 times during the rental period, but once it was returned, you promptly forgot about it. However, thanks to the Internet I managed to find a complete upload of the whole movie. The purpose of this was to revisit my childhood, remove the “Nostalgia Goggles” (as I personally thought this movie was wonderful as a child), and watch Rock-A-Doodle with the perspective of not only a fan of animated movies, but a fan of Don Bluths’ movies.

Well, I suppose I should just give a brief overview of the plot first. It begins with Chanticleer crowing/ singing a song to make the sun rise. All of the animals adore and look up to Chanticleer because they believe that his crowing brings the sun up, just like in the fable. However, after getting attacked by another rooster sent by the evil Grand Duke of Owls, Chanticleer, despite winning, forgets to crow but the sun rises anyway. The animals discover the Chanticleer is a fake and drive him out of the farm, causing a continuous rainstorm and the Grand Duke to reign terror over the farm. However, it turns out that this is simply just a story being told by a mother to our main character of the story, Edmond, whose family is attempting to hold down a huge flood from destroying their farm. As his family struggle against the flood, Edmond calls out for Chanticleer’s help, but is instead visited by the Grand Duke, who explains about his evil plan and turns Edmond into a cartoon kitten with his magical breath. Luckily, Edmond is saved by Patou the dog and all the other farm animals. It turns out that Chanticleer’s crowing did bring the sun up, so they now have to find him to stop the rain. Edmond teams up with Patou, a magpie named Snipes, and a mouse named Peepers, and they travel to The City to find Chanticleer while being pursued by the Grand Duke’s owl henchmen. But it turns out that Chanticleer has actually become a huge, Elvis-like singing sensation! How are Edmond and the gang going to get Chanticleer to stop the Grand Duke’s plan of eternal rain?

This plot has been compared to the “movie equivalent of ‘Mad Libs’ (The Nostalgia Critic, “Rock-A-Doodle review.” March 17, 2009)”, and it’s not really hard to see why. However, the very “out there” plot-line is not the movie’s biggest weakness, it’s the continuity. If you re-read the small synopsis, you’ll notice that while it seems that Chanticleer’s crowing didn’t bring the sun up, it turns out that suddenly he does make the sun rise, hence why Edmond and co. need to find Chanticleer and bring him back. This just begs the question: why did the sun rise up without him crowing that one time? Was it all just a ruse concocted by the Grand Duke? Did the sun happen to come in at an earlier time than usual? Or, as the Nostalgia Critic (a reviewer of shows and movies that the target audience used to watch back in the day) put it, did “God get bored and wanted to screw around with the rooster, so one day he decided to play yo-yo with the sun”? It’s never explained, and leaves a huge, gaping plot hole that is pretty much the metaphorical albatross around this movie’s neck.

Another aspect that severely cheapens the plot as a whole is the narration. Yes, there is a narrator in this movie, more specifically it’s Patou the dog (played by the late Phil Harris, who you might know as Baloo the Bear from The Jungle Book; I don’t know what to say about that fact that this was his last film role) who explains every single thing that’s either going on or what’s going to happen later in the movie, rather than being subtle or letting the audience figure it out for themselves. This in turn, basically ruins any tension or plot twist that could be considered interesting to the story, and makes it into a “Connect the Dots” puzzle with only 2 dots. This is also done through most of the movie’s musical numbers, sometimes even interrupting the song in the process, almost as if they were ashamed of the songs, or if they figured we couldn’t understand what was going on in the scene. I honestly even think programs like Barney the Dinosaur and Arthur don’t talk down to their audience like this movie did. It feels like I was talked down to like I didn’t have the mental capacity or understanding to figure out that this character was falling in love with that character, or the fact that Chanticleer was closer than Edmond and co. thought.

Which brings me to my next problem that I had with this review: the characters are not compelling. At all. When I think back to the older Don Bluth films, I can remember sharing the fear with Mrs. Brisby in The Secret of NIMH, was concerned for her as she tried figuring out the truth being NIMH, the connection to her husband, and hoped that she could get her family moved to safety. In An American Tale, I cheered when Fievel and the other mice worked together and drove the evil cats away from New York, and cried when Fievel just about gave up trying to find his parents. With Edmond while he was a cartoon cat? I honestly just wanted him to shut up. This is mostly because Edmond’s actor, Toby Scott Ganger doesn’t have that much acting experience (save for a guest-star appearance on the sitcom Cheers and a few Disney Sing-A-Long videos); his main goal is to prove that he’s “a big boy” and not afraid of the Grand Duke, but any time that he opens his mouth and says these kinds of lines, it comes across as being annoying, whining, and bratty. Added to this is that fact that Edmond also has a lisp that give him an Elmer Fudd speech impediment, which I guess was supposed to sound endearing, but it just adds to his annoying personality, as well as make his dialogue very muddled and hard to hear.

The other animals that make up the rag-tag gang to save Chanticleer aren’t that much better when it comes to personality and development either, save for Patou, who despite being Mr. Exposition in the movie, is quite friendly and reasonable as the Straight Man of the group. However, the designated “Jerk” of the group, Snipes the magpie (played by Eddie Deezen, who played Dexter’s rival Mandark in Dexter’s Laboratory) is nothing but a jerk who would rather be eating city food than finding Chanticleer and saving the farm and their fellow friends, as well as the fact that he also exists sorely to make snide, sexist remarks to Peepers about “staying in the kitchen, be a mouse-wife and make cheese”. Peepers the mouse (played by Sandy Duncan, who was Tod’s love interest Vixey in Disney’s The Fox and the Hound and Queen Uberta in The Swan Princess) is just the designated “smart character”, though I personally never saw her do anything smart throughout the movie, save for her piloting a convenient plane whose model and design she just happened to know how to pilot. Chanticleer (played by country singer Glen Campell) isn’t much of a character to write about, and although Christopher Plummer (Charles Muntz, Up) admittedly make the Grand Duke a bombastic villain, his performance is not really saying much.

The animation is also extremely sub-par for a Don Bluth film. The colors are very muddled and dark, and not in the good, typical way of Don Bluth’s color palette; as this just sharply contrasts with the supposed cheery, colorful environment of the movie. Also, for a film made in 1992, when compared to other animated movies made around the time such as Disney’s Aladdin and Fox’s Ferngully: The Last Rainforest, the production values of Rock-A-Doodle look remarkably cheap.

In conclusion, it’s quite sad to see an interesting animation creator such as Don Bluth fall so hard in such a very short amount of time by animated movie standards. When looking back on his earlier films such as The Secret of NIMH, An American Tale, even All Dogs Go To Heaven (which many consider his last greatest work), and comparing them to Rock-A-Doodle, there’s just something that makes you wonder, “Where did Don Bluth go wrong, and why?” Perhaps the best guess is that he cracked under the Disney Renaissance, and for the rest of the 90’s just continued into a downward spiral of futility. Whatever the reason though, Rock-A-Doodle is thankfully overlooked and outright stated by fans of Don Bluth that it doesn’t exist, and for very good reasons. With a plot that has crater-sized holes, characters that you can’t bring yourself to care about no matter how much danger they’re in, and ugly, muddled, underdeveloped art, it’s not quite surprising that people cite Rock-A-Doodle as Don Bluth’s worst movie that he’s ever made.

…Though I’ve heard that The Pebble and the Penguin would beg to differ about that…

Sources:

Rock-A-Doodle on Wikipedia

The Nostalgia Critic: Rock-A-Doodle Review

Rock-A-Doodle on TV Tropes.org

Edit: I posted my two comments to Andrew Steward’s blog and David Dinnison’s blog.

On the website thatguywiththeglasses.com (mostly famous for Internet Personality The Nostalgia Critic), I found a very interesting two-part video analysis on not just how cartoons evolved into what they are today, but the whole concept of animation in general as written/ narrated by MarzGurl, a member of Inked Reality, an affiliate of thatguywiththeglasses.com. In the first part of her review, MarzGurl briefly summarizes the Silent Film era up to the 1960’s, where animation began to clearly show a much cheaper budget, while attempting to give the viewer concrete backup of her statement that while “cartoon” and “animation” are not the same thing (she explains that a cartoon usually involves elements of comedy, whereas animation is more or less just another medium of entertainment like a movie, TV program, or book), the current stereotype for animation in general is that it’s primarily “cartoons for kids”.

I do have to say one of the strongest points about this part of the review is that, despite not really going into too much detail about every single aspect, studio, and cartoon icon of the time, somebody without any knowledge or study of the complete animation history can get a nicely abridged version of it in this review. There was something morbidly funny, yet weird as MarzGurl pointed out that the cartoon shorts that were shown at films during the “Silent Film/ Sound” eras were mostly targeted toward adults rather than kids. For example, a clip of a Felix the Cat cartoon where the titular cat discovers that he accidentally is the father of a litter of kittens which subsequently leads to him committing suicide by gas was personally one of the more eerily disturbing clips shown in the video. I understand that this has not been the first time that a cartoon character has used suicide, but the seemingly utter sincerity of the cartoon, as well as Felix’s desperate preparation of the gas pump to escape his now-wife and kids combined with the bouncy vaudeville music makes for an uncomfortable laugh.

Another aspect that I liked during the first part was her point that the Wartime Cartoons (though this could now probably apply to almost any cartoon made in the 1940’s- 1960’s) are pretty much banned from public viewing due to, in MarzGurl’s opinion, people are more offended at cartoons that parodied Hitler or the Nazis in general, especially in today’s PC society (although, to be fair, a lot of the Wartime Cartoons produced by Warner Bros. and Disney are now in DVD collections). On a more personal note, I feel that it’s this extreme view of political correctness is one of the main causes why animation is mostly viewed as a form of entertainment for children is because any sort of satire making fun of a catastrophic event would involve stereotypes which young children possibly wouldn’t understand; not to mention rampant cries of soccer moms complaining that the animation would be making their kids racist or “culturally insensitive” for a lighter term.

One weak point, however, is that she only mentions Walt Disney making his movies as well as his Silly Symphonies/ Steamboat Willie, but doesn’t really dwell too much on it, and just assumes that we know the rest since Disney movies are the quintessential form of animated movies that every person watches as a child. I personally would’ve like to hear her talk about Disney just a little more, as well as mention their period in which their movies weren’t becoming the blockbusters like they were during the 1930’s, as well as the company resorting to recycling their animation in certain movies.

During Part 2 of her “History of Animation”, MarzGurl picks up where she left off in the first part, namely the period during the 1960’s where the cost of animation productions increased, so companies such as Hanna Barbera had cartoons with fewer animation frames, jerky animation, and sub-part art (as well as one too many cartoons involving a similar plot-line to one their most popular cartoons, Scooby Doo, but I digress).

The strongest aspect in this part of her “History of Animation” video is her view on cartoons from the 1980’s, who, while are still remembered fondly through pure nostalgia, mainly served as marketing vehicles so children could buy all of the toy product tie-ins, making animation (in these examples anyway), purely a commercial business. Another point that she remarks on is the fact that since animation at this stage is now aimed primarily for kids rather than adults, any sort of  violence was now kiddified or removed altogether; the best example of this is G. I. Joe, which has guns firing laser beams and people parachuting to safety, along with a Public Service Announcement at the end of each episode.

However, Part 2 is probably where MarzGurl derails from her analysis of animation in general, and starts to go into a full blown rant not unlike basically saying in a nutshell “I miss ‘The Good Ol’ Days’, animation today is garbage!” Although she briefly acknowledges that Don Bluth movies such as An American Tale and The Secret of NIMH, as well as Pixar movies and certain animated programs produced by Steven Spielberg such as Animainiacs and Freakazoid! attempted to be just as much for adults as kids, she dismisses anything else as, in her words, “pure retardation”. More specifically, she targets shows such as Ren and Stimpy and The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy, cartoon shows that purposefully have a morbid, “out there” sense of humor, and just insults them without giving any sort of indication as to why they are “crap”, other than the fact that she just plain doesn’t like cartoons that have Gross Out Humor.

Another aspect that makes this part of the review extremely weak and personally leaves her whole Animation analysis on a very sour note is that while she also judges a single show based on a gag song (as she does with The Marvelous Misadventures of Flapjack) without seemingly bothering to look at the content, her view of the “Japanese Animation Surge” that appeared on Toonami and Adult Swim basically comes across as another anime fan saying Japanese Animation is the only good animation out there. What really drives the proverbial nail in the coffin though, is that MarzGurl then proceeds to waste two minutes of the review basically directly insulting Adult Swim/ Williams Street and mocking the long-running Adult Swim show Aqua Teen Hunger Force rather than using the time to explain her reasons why; only just give the explanation “just because”.

Although MarzGurl has some very good points on animation and its history in the first part of the video, the second part is what nearly kills any sort of credibility; basically devolving into a rant complaining about shows she doesn’t like, rather than try and get facts about them, and how this has impacted animation. Not to mention that she doesn’t remark about the fact that more and more animators are using computers/ digital animation (either in 2D or 3D)/ CGI to create most cartoons/ animation nowadays. In conclusion, it’s probably best just to see the first part if one wants to see an unbiased look at the history of animation, but if you must see the second part, I honestly wouldn’t expect much information out of it.

History of Animation Part One

History of Animation Part Two



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